, , , , ,

[Norm’s note: reading this, keep in mind that the mRNA vaccines code for the the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein). Question: is the bioactivity of transfected spike the same as that which comes with the virus? I strongly suspect that it is.]

Hat tip:

Source: Journal of the American Chemical Society

Read the PDF of the entire study: HERE


SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a surprising number of morbidities. Uncanny similarities with amyloid-disease associated blood coagulation and fibrinolytic disturbances together with neurologic and cardiac problems led us to investigate the amyloidogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein). Amyloid fibril assays of peptide library mixtures and theoretical predictions identified seven amyloidogenic sequences within the S-protein. All seven peptides in isolation formed aggregates during incubation at 37 °C. Three 20-amino acid long synthetic spike peptides (sequence 192–211, 601–620, 1166–1185) fulfilled three amyloid fibril criteria: nucleation dependent polymerization kinetics by ThT, Congo red positivity, and ultrastructural fibrillar morphology. Full-length folded S-protein did not form amyloid fibrils, but amyloid-like fibrils with evident branching were formed during 24 h of S-protein coincubation with the protease neutrophil elastase (NE) in vitro. NE efficiently cleaved S-protein, rendering exposure of amyloidogenic segments and accumulation of the amyloidogenic peptide 194–203, part of the most amyloidogenic synthetic spike peptide. NE is overexpressed at inflamed sites of viral infection. Our data propose a molecular mechanism for potential amyloidogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein in humans facilitated by endoproteolysis. The prospective of S-protein amyloidogenesis in COVID-19 disease associated pathogenesis can be important in understanding the disease and long COVID-19.

Read the PDF of the entire study: HERE